Swift 语言之控制流学习笔记

for循环

for-in(数组,集合,字典,字符串类似):

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for index in 1...5 {
println("\(index) times 5 is \(index * 5)")
}
// 1 times 5 is 5
// 2 times 5 is 10
// 3 times 5 is 15
// 4 times 5 is 20
// 5 times 5 is 25

忽略对值的访问:

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let base = 3
let power = 10
var answer = 1
for _ in 1...power {
answer *= base
}
println("\(base) to the power of \(power) is \(answer)")
// prints "3 to the power of 10 is 59049"

for循环:

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for var index = 0; index < 3; ++index {
println("index is \(index)")
}
// index is 0
// index is 1
// index is 2

while循环

while循环:

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var square = 0
var diceRoll = 0
while square < finalSquare {
// roll the dice
if ++diceRoll == 7 { diceRoll = 1 }
// move by the rolled amount
square += diceRoll
if square < board.count {
// if we're still on the board, move up or down for a snake or a ladder
square += board[square]
}
}
println("Game over!")

do-while循环:

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let finalSquare = 25
var board = [Int](count: finalSquare + 1, repeatedValue: 0)
board[03] = +08; board[06] = +11; board[09] = +09; board[10] = +02
board[14] = -10; board[19] = -11; board[22] = -02; board[24] = -08
var square = 0
var diceRoll = 0

do {
// move up or down for a snake or ladder
square += board[square]
// roll the dice
if ++diceRoll == 7 { diceRoll = 1 }
// move by the rolled amount
square += diceRoll
} while square < finalSquare
println("Game over!")

条件语句

if语句:

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temperatureInFahrenheit = 90
if temperatureInFahrenheit <= 32 {
println("It's very cold. Consider wearing a scarf.")
} else if temperatureInFahrenheit >= 86 {
println("It's really warm. Don't forget to wear sunscreen.")
} else {
println("It's not that cold. Wear a t-shirt.")
}
// prints "It's really warm. Don't forget to wear sunscreen."

switch语句:

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let someCharacter: Character = "e"
switch someCharacter {
case "a", "e", "i", "o", "u":
println("\(someCharacter) is a vowel")
case "b", "c", "d", "f", "g", "h", "j", "k", "l", "m",
"n", "p", "q", "r", "s", "t", "v", "w", "x", "y", "z":
println("\(someCharacter) is a consonant")
default:
println("\(someCharacter) is not a vowel or a consonant")
}
// prints "e is a vowel"

范围匹配:

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let count = 3_000_000_000_000
let countedThings = "stars in the Milky Way"
var naturalCount: String
switch count {
case 0:
naturalCount = "no"
case 1...3:
naturalCount = "a few"
case 4...9:
naturalCount = "several"
case 10...99:
naturalCount = "tens of"
case 100...999:
naturalCount = "hundreds of"
case 1000...999_999:
naturalCount = "thousands of"
default:
naturalCount = "millions and millions of"
}
println("There are \(naturalCount) \(countedThings).")
// prints "There are millions and millions of stars in the Milky Way."

元组:

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let somePoint = (1, 1)
switch somePoint {
case (0, 0):
println("(0, 0) is at the origin")
case (_, 0):
println("(\(somePoint.0), 0) is on the x-axis")
case (0, _):
println("(0, \(somePoint.1)) is on the y-axis")
case (-2...2, -2...2):
println("(\(somePoint.0), \(somePoint.1)) is inside the box")
default:
println("(\(somePoint.0), \(somePoint.1)) is outside of the box")
}
// prints "(1, 1) is inside the box"

值绑定:

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let anotherPoint = (2, 0)
switch anotherPoint {
case (let x, 0):
println("on the x-axis with an x value of \(x)")
case (0, let y):
println("on the y-axis with a y value of \(y)")
case let (x, y):
println("somewhere else at (\(x), \(y))")
}

where语句:

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let yetAnotherPoint = (1, -1)
switch yetAnotherPoint {
case let (x, y) where x == y:
println("(\(x), \(y)) is on the line x == y")
case let (x, y) where x == -y:
println("(\(x), \(y)) is on the line x == -y")
case let (x, y):
println("(\(x), \(y)) is just some arbitrary point")
}
// prints "(1, -1) is on the line x == -y"

控制转移语句

continue语句:

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let puzzleInput = "great minds think alike"
var puzzleOutput = ""
for character in puzzleInput {
switch character {
case "a", "e", "i", "o", "u", " ":
continue
default:
puzzleOutput.append(character)
}
}
println(puzzleOutput)
// prints "grtmndsthnklk"

break语句:

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let numberSymbol: Character = "三"  // Simplified Chinese for the number 3
var possibleIntegerValue: Int?
switch numberSymbol {
case "1", "١", "一", "๑":
possibleIntegerValue = 1
case "2", "٢", "二", "๒":
possibleIntegerValue = 2
case "3", "٣", "三", "๓":
possibleIntegerValue = 3
case "4", "٤", "四", "๔":
possibleIntegerValue = 4
default:
break
}
if let integerValue = possibleIntegerValue {
println("The integer value of \(numberSymbol) is \(integerValue).")
} else {
println("An integer value could not be found for \(numberSymbol).")
}
// prints "The integer value of 三 is 3."

fallthrough语句:

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let integerToDescribe = 5
var description = "The number \(integerToDescribe) is"
switch integerToDescribe {
case 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19:
description += " a prime number, and also"
fallthrough
default:
description += " an integer."
}
println(description)
// prints "The number 5 is a prime number, and also an integer."

带标签的语句:

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let finalSquare = 25
var board = [Int](count: finalSquare + 1, repeatedValue: 0)
board[03] = +08; board[06] = +11; board[09] = +09; board[10] = +02
board[14] = -10; board[19] = -11; board[22] = -02; board[24] = -08
var square = 0
var diceRoll = 0

gameLoop: while square != finalSquare {
if ++diceRoll == 7 { diceRoll = 1 }
switch square + diceRoll {
case finalSquare:
// diceRoll will move us to the final square, so the game is over
break gameLoop
case let newSquare where newSquare > finalSquare:
// diceRoll will move us beyond the final square, so roll again
continue gameLoop
default:
// this is a valid move, so find out its effect
square += diceRoll
square += board[square]
}
}
println("Game over!")
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